Action Plan – a detailed plan outlining the actions and timeline needed to implement specific goals.

Benchmarking – a systematic process for identifying and implementing best or better practices. 

Best practices – established practices shown to produce demonstrably superior results, which can then adapted to fit a particular organisation. 

Common legislative framework – the harmonisation across borders of policies, legislation and regulations governing a particular sector, allowing the interoperability of goods and services.

Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) – is a composite index that summarises relevant indicators on Europe’s digital performance and tracks the evolution of EU Member States in digital competitiveness. 

Eastern partner countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine

Eastern Partnership (EaP) – The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is a joint initiative of the EU, its Member States and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine (the ‘Eastern partner countries’).

EaP region – the region covered by the six Eastern partner countries.

Eastern Neighbourhood countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine

European Union (EU) Delegations​ – The EU representatives in the six partner countries.​ EU Delegations act as the eyes, ears and mouthpiece of the EC in their host countries.​

EU4Digital Initiative – the EU4Digital Initiative brings together priority EU actions and programmes in the field, including the EU4Digital networks, the EU4Digital Facility, the EaPConnect project, the EU4Digital Cybersecurity project and the EU4Digital Broadband project.

EU4Digital Facility – a three-year programme promoting key areas of the digital economy and society, in line with EU norms and practices.

EU4Digital Networks – there are six EU4Digital networks of correspondents from the partner countries and the EU Member States responsible for specific policy areas. The networks serve as platforms for sharing best practices and experiences among Eastern Partners and with the EU, promoting synergies and developing joint projects and roadmaps, and focusing on concrete and achievable deliverables. 

European Union Digital Single Market – One of the 10 political priorities of the 2014-2019 European Commission, the Digital Single Market designates the 2014-2019 strategy of the European Commission for the best possible access to the online world for individuals and businesses.

Harmonisation of digital markets (HDM) – integrating digital markets in the Eastern partner countries with the EU’s Digital Single Market.

HDM Coordinators – Representatives from the Eastern partner countries on the ministerial level.

Information Technology (IT) – the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data or information. IT is typically used within the context of business operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies. 

Legislative framework – the body of policies, legislation and regulations, at national, regional and local level, governing a particular area.

Methodology – a general research strategy that outlines the approach to undertaking a particular activity or research, and identifies the methods to be used in it (e.g. modes of data collection or how a specific result is to be obtained).

Networking – the exchange of information and ideas among people with a common profession or special interest.

Online services – a collection of interactive public services or web applicationsl online services can include interactive features such as payments, registrations, licensing and permit applications, purchases, searches, email notifications, and more.

Pilot project – a small scale preliminary action conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, duration, cost, adverse events, and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale project.

Public-Private Partnership – a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private entities. In other words, it involves government and business(es) working together to complete a project and/or to provide services to the population.

Regulatory Authority – a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over a specific area of activity in a regulatory and/or supervisory capacity. Regulatory authorities are commonly set up to enforce safety and standards, and/or to protect consumers in markets where there is a lack of effective competition. 

Roadmap – a strategic plan that defines a goal or desired outcome and includes the major steps or milestones needed to reach it.

SME – Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise.

Start-up – A start-up is a young company founded by one or more entrepreneurs to develop a unique product or service and bring it to market. By its nature, the typical start-up tends to be a shoestring operation, with initial funding from the founders or their friends and families.

Synergies – a synergy is an interaction or cooperation giving rise to a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. 

20 Deliverables for 2020 – a work plan for reforms in the EaP that would bring tangible benefits for citizens, across four key areas – economy, governance, connectivity, and society.

Accelerator – an accelerator is a fixed-term programme that usually lasts from three to twelve months, and provides a combination of education, mentoring, and networking, often with investment. It is distinct from other forms of investment and incubation, such as angel investing, grants, or incubators.

Alternative finance – A range of products emerging outside of traditional banking for businesses that have difficulties in accessing banking loans because of their high-risk business plans, e.g. peer-to-peer lending, crowdfunding, marketplace lending and initial coin offering (ICO). 

Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Artificial intelligence involves using computers to do things that traditionally require human intelligence. This means creating algorithms to classify, analyse, and draw predictions from data. It also involves acting on data, learning from new data, and improving over time.  

Big data – Big data is a field that treats ways to analyse, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data-processing application software. 

Blockchain – a blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data, allowing the system to record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. 

Business angels – high net worth individuals who usually provide smaller amounts of finance at an earlier stage than many venture capital funds are able to invest.

Competence centres or centres of excellence –  Singular repositories of knowledge and resource pools for multiple business areas acting a) under a framework of a certain legal entity, b) as associations that are based on innovative cooperation between the public authorities, research and development institutions and enterprises, c) as a consortium of several research groups internationally recognised in their field of research.

Convertible notes – Short-term debts that convert into equity at an established period of time. By loaning money, the investor expects not a financial return with an interest rate, but rather a position within the company through a predefined acquisition of shares.

Cluster – Groups of firms, related economic actors, and institutions that are located near each other and have reached a sufficient scale to develop specialised expertise, services, resources, suppliers and skills. Within clusters, vertical collaboration (subcontracting) takes place among economic agents that specialise on different stages of the value chain, while horizontal collaboration (joint projects) takes place among economic agents that provide complementary resources, and informal linkages enable quick learning. Thus, competition and collaboration coexist in the clusters and provoke innovations.

Cluster organisations – The legal entities that support the strengthening of collaboration, networking and learning in innovation clusters, and act as innovation support providers by providing or channelling specialised and customised business support services to stimulate innovation activities, especially in SMEs. They are usually the actors that facilitate strategic partnering across clusters. 

Crowdfunding – the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via Internet platforms.

Crowdsourcing the practice of engaging a ‘crowd’ or group for a common goal — often innovation, problem solving, or efficiency. It is powered by new technologies, social media and web 2.0 (e.g. traffic apps encourage drivers to report accidents and other roadway incidents to provide real-time updated information to app users).

Digital Innovation and Scale-up Initiative (DISC) – The DISC was initially launched by the EU in the Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe region, and aims to address the investment gap in digital innovations and to support the scale-up of digital start-ups in the region. EU4Digital is supporting its extension to the EaP region.

Digital Innovation Hub (DIH) – Digital Innovation Hubs are one-stop-shops that help companies to become more competitive with regard to their business/production processes, products or services using digital technologies. They are based on technology infrastructure and provide access to the latest knowledge, expertise and technology to support their customers with piloting, testing and experimenting with digital innovations. DIHs also provide business and financing support to implement these innovations, if needed across the value chain.

Digital transformation – A fusion of advanced technologies and the integration of physical and digital systems, the predominance of innovative business models and new processes, and the creation of smart products and services.

Ecosystem for digital innovations – An interconnected network formed by people, start-ups and companies in their various stages, and various types of organisations interacting as a system to create and support digital innovations.

Ecosystem builders – Ecosystem actors who play a role in creating an inclusive network of entrepreneurs in the local community through running a co-working space, mentoring young entrepreneurs or organising networking events, play a role in government and are involved in making the policy that effects start-ups, or play a role in the innovation and entrepreneurship infrastructure and service menu. 

European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator – The EIC Accelerator is part of the European Innovation Council (EIC) pilot that supports top class innovators, entrepreneurs and small companies with funding opportunities and acceleration services. 

Fablab – A fablab (fabrication laboratory) is a small-scale workshop offering (personal) digital fabrication. A fablab is typically equipped with an array of flexible computer-controlled tools, with the aim to make ‘almost anything’.

High risk digital innovations – New ideas based on disruptive technologies coupled with business model changes that need quick introduction into the market.

ICT – Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

Innovation ecosystem – An “innovation ecosystem” is the term used to describe the various players, stakeholders, and community members that are critical for innovation. It includes universities, government, corporations, start-up accelerators, venture capitalists, private investors, foundations, entrepreneurs, mentors, and the media. 

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) – Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.

Internet of Things (IoT) – The Internet of Things describes the network of physical objects – ‘things’ – that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the Internet. 

Mentoring – A partnership between two people built on trust, in which the mentor (senior/experienced individual) offers on-going support and developmental opportunities to the mentee (junior/less experienced individual).

Mentorship or mentoring programme – A structured, often one-to-one relationship in a work, organisation, or academic setting. A well-functioning mentorship programme requires strategic planning and organisation to connect people, increase knowledge and build skills for future goals and milestones.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending – the practice of lending money to individuals or businesses through online services that match lenders with borrowers.

Regulatory sandbox – A controlled environment in which innovation in high technologies can take place while providing safeguards to manage risks. For example, regulatory sandboxes for alternative finance enable banks and FinTech players to experiment with innovative financial products or services by removing unnecessary regulatory barriers and reducing the time of bringing new ideas to market.

Robotics – an interdisciplinary research area at the interface of computer science and engineering that involves the design, construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of robotics is to design intelligent machines that can help and assist humans in their day-to-day lives and keep everyone safe.

Seed funding – the money usually raised by private investors for the early start-up development stage. Funding is usually provided in exchange for an equity stake in the company or for a share in the profits of a product.  

Series A funding – An investment in a privately held start-up company after it has shown progress in building its business model and demonstrates the potential to grow and generate revenue. Usually, Series A financing comes from well-established venture capital (VC).

Soft loans – A loan with a below-market rate of interest and prolonged repayment duration. These represent a convenient and flexible means of funding for start-ups as they create suitable conditions for risky entrepreneurial investments.

Start-up – A start-up is a young company founded by one or more entrepreneurs to develop a unique product or service and bring it to market. By its nature, the typical start-up tends to be a shoestring operation, with initial funding from the founders or their friends and families.

Scale-up – A high-growth company, defined as a company that has achieved growth of 20% or more in either employment or turnover year on year for at least two years, and with a minimum employee count of 10 at the start of the observation period.

SME – Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise.

SMEs 4.0 competence centres – A tool helping SMEs as they accumulate specific expertise required for implementation of the digital transformation, linking the deep tech knowledge, the knowledge of specifics of production and business processes in different industries, and the knowledge of innovation management and business transformation.Venture capital – Pooled investment funds that manage the money of investors who seek private equity stakes in start-ups and SMEs with strong growth potential. These investments are generally characterised as very high-risk/high-return opportunities.

Independent Regulators and Broadband Expert Working group (IRB EWG) – one of the three EWGs of the EaPeReg, focusing on the priorities related to the independence of National Regulatory Authorities and broadband development in the EaP region. 

Broadband – broadband Internet service is the most used form of Internet access because of its high access speeds; it is offered in four different forms, DSL (or Digital Subscriber Line), fiber-optic, cable, and satellite. 

Common roaming space – a common international roaming space among different countries (e.g. among the six Eastern partner countries), where the applicable rates for mobile international roaming services would be reduced to a level reflecting costs incurred.

EaPeReg – The Eastern Partnership Electronic Communications Regulators Network (EaPeReg) is an independent platform of National Regulatory Authorities for Electronic Communications Networks and Services.

Electronic communication networks – according to EU law, electronic communication networks cover most transmission networks – whether the signals are conveyed by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic means. These include: satellite networks, fixed and mobile terrestrial networks, electricity cable systems to the extent that they are used for transmitting signals, and cable television networks, irrespective of the type of information conveyed.

Electronic communication services – according to EU law, electronic communications services are services provided by means of electronic signals over, for example, telecommunications or broadcasting networks.

EU4Digital Broadband project – ‘EU4Digital – Broadband strategies in the EaP region’ (2018-2020) is a project implemented by the World Bank to support Eastern Partner countries in developing and implementing national broadband strategies.

Frequency redistribution – Part of EU4Digital’s work in the telecommunications area is related to freeing the 700 MHz frequency band to support a coordinated approach for reassignment of the 700 MHz band, removing terrestrial TV broadcasting networks from the 700 MHz band and reassigning it to wireless broadband electronic communications networks and in particular 5G.

National Regulatory Authority (NRA) – NRAs are bodies under national laws entrusted with performing regulatory functions in the field of electronic communications. These government authorities ensure a balance between promoting efficient competition, investment and consumer interests with development of electronic communications markets, services and networks in mind.

Regional Roaming Agreement (RRA)– a regional roaming agreement would ensure a substantial lowering of mobile roaming prices among the six Eastern partner countries. This would allow mobile communications networks’ roaming customers to enjoy more affordable services while roaming in other Eastern partner countries. 

Regional Spectrum Agreement (RSA) – a regional spectrum agreement would ensure harmonised usage of spectrum resources among partner countries and with the EU. 

Roaming – roaming refers to the ability for a mobile phone customer to automatically make and receive voice calls, send and receive data, or access other services, including home data services, when travelling outside the geographical coverage area of the home network, by means of using a visited network.

Roaming tariffs – roaming tariffs are the fees that may apply when you travel and leave your ‘home’ network area and ‘roam’ onto the network or coverage area of another provider. 

Roaming Expert Working group (REWG) – one of the three EWGs of the EaPeReg, focusing on reducing the difference between domestic and roaming prices and thus supporting competition on the roaming mobile market and protecting consumers’ rights and interests within the Eastern partner countries.

Spectrum management the process of regulating the use of radio frequencies to promote efficient use and gain a net social benefit. The term radio spectrum typically refers to the full frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz that may be used for wireless communication.

Spectrum Expert Working group (SEWG) – one of the three EWGs of the EaPeReg, focusing on spectrum management in the Eastern partner countries.

Terrestrial TV broadcasting networks – where the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth-based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna, as opposed to satellite, cable or internet streamed television. 

700MHz band – the 700 MHz frequency band is part of the wider ultra-high frequency (UHF) band, currently used throughout Europe for terrestrial broadcasting. At the moment, the UHF band is used as a whole for DTT transmission. The EU aims to reallocate the 700 MHz band for wireless broadband services, including 5G.

5G – The “fifth generation” of telecommunication systems, or 5G, is seen as one of the most critical building blocks of the digital economy and society in the next decade. 5G will provide virtually ubiquitous, ultra-high bandwidth, and low latency “connectivity” not only to individual users but also to connected objects. Therefore, it is expected that the future 5G infrastructure will serve a wide range of applications and sectors including professional uses (e.g. Connected Automated Mobility, eHealth, energy management, possibly safety applications, etc).

Competence a demonstrated ability to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to achieve observable results.

Competence Framework – a structure that defines the competence of people within an organisation.

Digital competence – confident and critical use of electronic media for work, leisure, and communication.

Digital skills gap – the digital skills gap is the difference between supply and demand for technical proficiency in the economy. Currently, companies need digital skills to power their businesses, but there are not enough people with those skills in the job market.

Digital Skills and Society Index (DESI) – a composite index that summarises relevant indicators on Europe’s digital performance and tracks the evolution of EU Member States in digital competitiveness.

Digital transformation – the process in which society shifts to new ways of working and thinking via the use of digital and social technologies.

Learning outcome what a person is expected to know, understand or be able to do at the end of a training programme, course or module.

National Coalitions for digital skills and jobs – partnerships between digital skills actors in EU Member States who work together to improve digital skills at national, regional or local level. EU4Digital supports the establishment of national coalitions for digital skills and jobs in the Eastern partner countries.

Skill – learned capacity to perform a task to a specified expectation.

STEM – Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).

Vocational Education and Training (VET) – VET or TVET (Technical Vocational Education and Training) refers to programmes or courses that focus on the skills required for a particular job function or trade. 

Cross-border eHealth platform – the eHealth collaboration platform is a new channel for regional collaboration between eHealth experts in Eastern partner countries. The platform, supported by EU4Digital, will serve as a collaboration space for professionals of Eastern partner countries in their work on developing common eHealth guidelines and, in the future, services, facilitating international eHealth development and harmonisation initiatives in the region.

Digital Health governance – governance for digital health aims to strengthen the capabilities and skills needed for countries to promote, innovate and scale up digital health technologies.  

ePrescription – ePrescription is a simple tool to generate prescriptions electronically. It is generally understood as a prescriber’s ability to electronically send an accurate, error-free and understandable prescription directly to a pharmacy from the point-of-care. ePrescription is also used by nurses to administer medicines and by pharmacies to review orders and manage the supply of medicines.

Electronic Health Record (EHR) – An electronic health record (EHR) is a digital version of a patient’s paper chart. EHRs are real-time, patient-centered records that make information available instantly and securely to authorised users.

European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) – an initiative launched by the European Commission to foster innovation and digital transformation in the field of active and healthy ageing.

Interoperability – Interoperability is the ability of different systems, organisations or countries to exchange health information and use it meaningfully. That means the participants must be able to understand and interpret the shared information correctly, which basically means using the same standards and processes to provide an eHealth service.

Patient Summary – a standardised set of basic medical data that includes the most important clinical facts required to ensure safe and secure healthcare. This summarised version of the patient’s medical data gives health professionals the essential information they need to provide care in the case of an unexpected or unscheduled medical situation (e.g. emergency or accident).

Reference Sites – innovative ecosystems in the EIP on AHA programme context that have established innovative practice and aim to grow according to the EIP on AHA quadruple helix model – by involving stakeholders from different sectors, e.g., industry, public authority, civil society, research/academia. A starting-out Reference Site can have one sector involved and commit to involving other sectors later.

Twinning – a knowledge exchange scheme in the EIP on AHA context between Reference Sites, where one site acts as the originator and the other as adaptor – looking to adopt the originator site’s practice.

Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) – a key EU funding instrument to promote growth, jobs and competitiveness through targeted infrastructure investment at European level.

Country of destination – the country in which exported goods are to be used or consumed, as known to the shipper at the time of export.

Customs clearance – the accomplishment of the customs formalities necessary to allow goods to enter home use, to be exported, or to be placed under another customs procedure.

Designated operator (DO) – a term used when referring to the national postal operator.

Digital Transport Corridor (DTC) – is a federated network of platforms, which integrates information resources of the participants of an international transport corridor to create a data pipeline for multi-modal cargo and provide different digital services for business and government.  

eCommerce – Electronic commerce – or eCommerce – refers to the sale of goods through electronic transactions carried out on computer networks. 

eCommerce VAT package – new VAT eCommerce rules developed as one of the priorities under the Digital Single Market Strategy.

eCustoms – eCustoms refer to the systematic and automatic exchange of customs information (e.g. pre-arrival information exchange, risk assessment, data matching, results of customs controls) between logistics business and customs authorities.  

eDelivery – eDelivery is a building block that provides technical specifications and standards, installable software and ancillary services to allow projects to create a network of nodes for secure digital data exchange. By building with eDelivery, public and private organisations from different sectors can easily create a safe and interoperable channel to transfer documents and data among each other over a public or private network.

eInvoicing – eInvoicing is a digital solution that enables public sector contractors and companies to receive and process electronic invoices, according to the European standard. 

eLogistics electronic logistics. 

eTrade – eTrade is cross-border paperless trade. It is an overarching topic that covers the import-export cycle for goods and services between countries, addressing areas like online buying or selling of goods or services from any part of the world, and transferring goods or services across borders, including the exchange of paperless documents between businesses and government, and delivering these goods or services to the buyer.

Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) – postal item identification/code developed and maintained by GS1, e.g. GTIN-123. 

Harmonised ID – postal item identification/code created by the shipper at origin and used by all eCommerce stakeholders end-to-end. The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) developed this label in line with the existing Universal Postal Union specification for the global postal network (only accessible for the designated postal operators).

HS code – postal item identification/code developed by the World Customs Organisation as a multipurpose international product nomenclature that describes the type of good that is shipped. Today, customs officers must use HS code to clear every commodity that enters or crosses any international borders.

International Mail Processing Centre – office of exchange used by designated operators for cross-border dispatch. 

Import Control System 2 – the new EU customs advance cargo information system that will facilitate free flow of trade through improved data-driven customs security processes.

Import One Stop Shop (IOSS) – a system to be introduced in July 2021, where web shops collect the VAT for each sales order that should be delivered to the EU Member State of consumption. Can be applied only to low value consignments. 

Low value consignments – consignments of an intrinsic value of maximum EUR 150.

Multimodal – Multimodal transport is the transportation of goods under a single contract, but performed with at least two different modes of transport, e.g. rail, sea and road.

National electronic logistics systems – (NeLS) – a centralised solution for information exchange between private and public entities on a national level as well as cross-border. It provides a single point of truth and trust, enabling to submit regulatory information electronically and authorities to access it electronically on a single platform (including for possibility for businesses to exchange information through NeLS).

Parcel or post item – generic term referring to anything dispatched by the postal services.

Simplified customs procedures – customs formalities where a reduced data set can be used to declare goods to customs in the EU.

Systematic Exchange of Electronic Data (SEED) – an electronic exchange of customs information system implemented with EU support in the Western Balkans and chosen as an EU4Digital pilot in the EaP region.

Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) – CERTs are expert groups that handle computer security incidents. Alternatively known as Computer Security Incidents Response Teams (CSIRTs)

Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) – includes the systems, services, networks and infrastructures that form a vital part of a nation’s economy and society, either providing essential goods and services or constituting the underpinning platform of other critical infrastructures. CII includes the public telephone network, the Internet, and terrestrial and satellite wireless networks. They are regarded as critical information infrastructures since their disruption or destruction would have a serious impact on vital societal functions.

Cybercrime – Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may threaten a person, company or a nation’s security and financial health. 

Cyber resilience – Cyber resilience is the ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from cyber attacks. It helps an organisation protect against cyber risks, defend against and limit the severity of attacks, and ensure its continued survival despite an attack.

Cyber security – Cyber security is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks, and data from malicious attacks. 

Digital identity services services that enable the management of a person’s identity using digital means. Digital identity services are designed to serve as the primary source of information to identify a citizen. Digital identity services include identity creation, identity update, and identity preservation services.

Digital trust services – the entire ecosystem of products and services designed to promote and ensure trust between, users and organisations. They include products and services such as electronic signatures, electronic seals, electronic time-stamps and electronic preservation services.

eID – Electronic identification (eID) is one of the tools to ensure secure access to online services and to carry out electronic transactions in a safer way. Secure electronic identification is an important enabler of data protection and the prevention of online fraud. eID can guarantee the unambiguous identification of a person and make it possible to get the service delivered to the person who is really entitled to it.

eIDAS Regulation – the EU regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market, ensuring the cross-border mutual recognition of eID.

eSignature – An electronic signature, or eSignature, refers to data in electronic form, which is logically associated with other data in electronic form and which is used by the signatory to sign.

Interoperability – the ability of organisations to interact towards mutually beneficial goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between these organisations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their ICT systems.

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