This paper by the ECDL foundation provides an overview of the main findings of five studies carried out by the National Operators of ECDL in Europe to find out what the actual digital skills levels in their countries are and discusses their implications for digital skills development on the national and European levels. Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany and Switzerland are all considered to be digitally advanced countries – they appear at the top of various international digital development indexes (for example, the Digital Economy and Society Index developed by the European Commission) and are useful as a point of comparison.